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と is a particle that can mark the end of a conditional clause in certain cases. It is similar to たら. (note that と is a particle that can also be used for many other things as well, being used as a conditional is just one of its many uses)
The と conditional means two different things depending on whether the second clause is present or past tense.
If the second clause is in the present tense, a と conditional implies that the second clause is a natural consequence of the first clause.
If you are still a student, you cannot enter that bar.
If the second clause is in the PAST tense, the と conditional is similar to the english "when." However, using と implies that the second clause happened unexpectedly.
When I went to the library, Mr. Mimura was there.
The と conditional is utilized with the following rules.